Feed International - October/November 2017 - 27

FeedInternational ❙ 27

solution: 3.13, 4.76, 6.40. It is evident
that the first dissociation of protons
will occur in the stomach of young
animals, whereas the other two will
have to wait until they reach the small
intestine (where pH is held near 7). Of
course, some of the citric acid will be
absorbed by the stomach wall cells
as a direct energy source, but this is a
totally different story.

tal bacterial load). To this end, it is
common practice today to use mixes
of organic acids that cover a broad
pH spectrum for different locations

Mixes of organic acids
Here it must be noticed that so
far we have been discussing the
behavior of organic acids in the
stomach - something that is largely
ignored. In the small intestine,
where pH nears 7 (neutral), organic
acids continue to act indiscriminately against bacteria as dissociation becomes virtually complete.
Therefore, the value of an organic
acid should be determined by the
location at which it is desired to
act. Some organic acids are more
suitable for the stomach (to prevent
pathogens from entering the gut),
whereas others are required to act
at the intestines level (to reduce to-

Ioannis Mavromichalis,
Ph.D., is Nutrition Editor for
WATTAgNet and Editor-inChief of Pig International. To
contact Mavromichalis, email
imavromichalis@wattglobal.com.
Efstratia Papanikou, Ph.D., is a plant
physiologist with Ariston Nutrition
Consulting. She can be reached at
epapanikou@ariston-nutrition.com.
October/November 2017 ❙ www.WATTAgNet.com

in the gut. In addition, not all organic acids are equally effective against
all pathogens, but this again requires
a different line of discussion. ■


http://www.chinaphytase.com http://www.WATTAgNet.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed International - October/November 2017

Feed International - October/November 2017
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
Top 100 global animal feed companies of 2016
100TH YEAR SERIES: Poultry, aquaculture set to dominate protein markets
Chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free animal diets
Forage analysis crucial to accurate ruminant rations
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Feed International - October/November 2017
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Cover2
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Contents
Feed International - October/November 2017 - In the Mix
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 3
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Industry Happenings
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 5
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Top 100 global animal feed companies of 2016
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 7
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 8
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 9
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 10
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 11
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 12
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 13
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 14
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 15
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 16
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 17
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 100TH YEAR SERIES: Poultry, aquaculture set to dominate protein markets
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 19
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 20
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 21
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free animal diets
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 23
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 24
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 25
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 26
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 27
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Forage analysis crucial to accurate ruminant rations
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 29
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 30
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 31
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 32
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 33
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Products
Feed International - October/November 2017 - 35
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Cover3
Feed International - October/November 2017 - Cover4
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